Mythic matriarchs and troubled twins – Penelope Farmer’s ‘Year King’ (1977)


At the heart of Year King is landscape, an Exmoor landscape – and one that is earthy and real, powerful and unsentimental. It’s as much dour and wet as lush and verdant. People live and work as part of it; it’s not a place that is visited and admired – it’s a landscape utilised. Animals are hunted, earth is worked.

‘Year King’ was published in 1977 by Chatto and Windus. The first edition cover illustration here is by William Bird.

Year King rests on a framework of ‘the king of the year’. There are many aspects to this ancient folklore – fertilised by James Frazer with The Golden Bough, branching into the neo-paganism of the early 20th century, adapted by many, and examined objectively in recent years by Ronald Hutton.

It explains death and renewal over the year – in winter, the land is barren; in spring, it grows. The king reigns for the first half of the year, until harvest, when he is cut down… we see this when our evenings shorten from the solstice in June, until the depths of December when the hours of light lengthen and it is summer again.

Dylan and Lewis – or Lan and Lew – are twins. Lew studies at Cambridge, confident and successful; Lan studies at Bristol, from the family home. His lonely and demanding mother, her husband constantly absent with work overseas, raises his younger sister. Lew can deal with his mother; Lan cannot. Lew has physical prowess, Lan does not.

Lan is the Year King: after Christmas, he leaves Bristol for Exmoor, and as the year grows, so does he.

Some magical-realism illustrates Lan’s dislocation in his search for identity – for brief moments he lives within Lew’s body: he makes love to his girlfriend, he rides a wave, he climbs a rock face.

Lan’s visits to Exmoor are brief at first, but he is soon immersed. He goes to earth. Layers of identity are removed – he leaves the family home, rejects academia, and is drawn to working with the land. He sees the contrast between his arty ‘student type’ and the childhood friend Greg who now works a farm, and represents a naturalness, solidity, at ease with himself. Lan does not ‘belong’ and yet in this space there is freedom from a definition of who he is.

Into this comes Novanna, an American student living in the next valley. Travelled, learned, and from an academic family (with whom she has a happy relationship) she represents a liberal, privileged independence that assumes it can see into Lan and Lew to reveal the family dynamics.

In the spring Lan and Novanna are lovers; at the harvest celebration, again Novanna chooses Lan over his brother Lew. But as autumn draws on, Lan’s growth is challenged – he is forcibly cut free from his old life by the wiles of his mother and Novanna’s wisdom is unwanted.

At the darkest point of the year, Lan is repeating the lyric ‘I am a rock, I am an island’. It’s a mantra that straps him to his sense of self as the mind-swapping phases with Lew grow more frequent and more dangerous.

More layers of myth are introduced when Lan and Lew both descend into the earth – a disused mine is the land of the dead. As they break down, Lan cannot bear the weight of being the ‘failing’ twin, but neither can Lew bear the pressure of being the ‘favoured’ one as they have collided with their mother’s unhappiness. But it emerges that they are not as psychically connected as Lan thinks.

That night he [Lan] awoke, though, weeping once again, and with an immense and hurtful sense he could not identify at first; except that it was to do with his mother. Pity, he decided eventually, pity – which in the end only made him feel sorry for himself too, because if she was lonely, so was he, he ached with loneliness: while Lew lay there, beside him; but not there, because asleep… because he was alone inside his skull and so was Lew.

Year King overflows with myth and meaning, and really marks Penelope Farmer out as a fascinating writer as she explores how we survive the path among brothers and sisters and the needs of those who gave us life. The breadth of her exploration of the inner mind is as wide and expansive as the landscape she uses, and it surpasses something like The Owl Service in this respect; her observations are acute and finely tuned to nuances of meaning in everyday life.

Year King is another title inexplicably out of print…


7 thoughts on “Mythic matriarchs and troubled twins – Penelope Farmer’s ‘Year King’ (1977)

  1. Another book I don’t know which sounds fascinating! I know the author by name. i shall have to track it down, with my Exmoor connection and your claim that it surpasses The Owl Service!

    • It’s more accessible than The Owl Service, and certainly stands up well against it – there’s a particular way Penelope Farmer treats inner life that I think is unique to her – so surpasses in that respect, but I worry saying surpass, it all depends on what you get from something at the time. And of course The Owl Service is obviously hallowed and a bit aloof as a result.

  2. I really enjoyed your exploration of this novel, and all the depth and magic of Penelope Farmer’s writing your review conveys. I’ve not read ‘Year King’ – I’ll definitely search it out – it sounds so full of all the elements that have drawn me to Penelope Farmer’s work in the past. I read ‘Charlotte Sometimes’ when I was about ten years old, and it’s one of those books that has always lived with me. It still haunts my memory in that special way that a book does when it deeply influences you as a child…

    It’s crazy that books like ‘Year King’ are out of print. A couple of years ago, I came across an article in The Guardian, in which Penelope Farmer talked about how she was struggling to find any outlet for her recent work. That was so depressing to hear. What hope is there, if Penelope Farmer can’t get past the publishers’ door??? She had decided to try her luck on the internet, and she put up her latest children’s novel online here:

    She also has a blog (though she hasn’t updated it for a long while) which is here:

    • Hopefully some publisher will reissue at some point. It does happen – Jane Nissen books has put back in print some good things like Alison Uttley’s A Traveller in Time or lately one of BB’s Bill Badger books which mainstream publishers don’t seem to consider as classics. Surely an author with such an established profile is worth investing in? I think she has a sort of out-of-kilter spirit that makes her books timeless.

      • Yes, that timeless quality in itself opens up so many reasons why she so deserves to have that investment… That special spirit of her writing is something we need more than ever to return to at this time I think… Let’s hope more mainstream publishers see sense!

        Jane Nissen Books is great isn’t it – it’s a real source of hope to see various small publishers mining the treasures of the past and keeping them on the shelves for new generations of readers…

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s